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Renewable energy integration projects

Read selected case stories which REPLI is carrying out or has completed within the field of renewable energy integration.

Supporting sustainable mini-grid development and production of wind turbines in Kenya

 Kenya power grid installation

Danida Market Development Partnerships

With the objective to reduce poverty and stimulate economic growth in rural Kenya, the project aims to develop a market for low-cost, partly locally produced wind turbines for rural electrification. The project will demonstrate the technical, social and economic feasibility of integrating a wind turbine into a smart solar-powered mini-grid in Kenya, and will develop this concept into a viable business for the private companies involved, having the technical, economic and management capacity to exploit it. The expected outcomes of the project are:

  • local jobs in manufacturing, assembly, installation, O&M of low cost turbines in mini-grids;
  • established local business for manufacturing parts of small modern wind turbines;
  • and reduced cost of electricity provided by mini-grids, benefiting disadvantaged communities.

The project is the first in the Danish Government's new program "Danida Market Development Partnerships". It will bring together communities, public institutions and commercial companies.


Jens Carsten Hansen, DTU Wind Energy

Ivan Nygaard, DTU Management Engineering


 RES generation patterns for ENTSO-E


European Network of Transmission System Operators - Electricity

DTU was chosen to provide a set of synthetic synchronous wind, solar and temperatures time series obtained by mesoscale dynamical downscaling simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and CorWind model.
The time series were generated for different spatial distributions for the countries members of ENTSO-E. The aggregation level ranged from country-wise to area levels, with hourly resolution.

The 12-year time series database is used in a biennial, non-binding, Ten-Year Network Development Plan (TYNDP). This network development plan is designed to increase information and transparency on investment needs in pan-European electricity transmission systems and, in doing so, support decision-makers at regional and European level.


Jens Carsten Hansen, DTU Wind Energy

Simulation of balancing in the Danish power system


Simba logo


The increased penetration of wind power in the Danish power system also causes an increased need for balancing power. This is because the wind power forecast errors also increase with the level of penetration of wind power. has developed Simba to be able to simulate and thereby quantify the balancing process in the Danish power system, with special focus on the imbalances caused by wind power forecast errors.
According to, “Simba models the intra-hour balancing of the power system and is based on the Danish principles of balancing. Traditionally, modeling issues have put the main focus on calculating hourly energy values, while intra-hourly modeling attracted little attention. SimBa has closed this gap.”
Simba is intended for the following studies:

  • Planning of investment
  • Assessment of new market designs (e.g. towards real time)
  • Assessment of cost / value of reserves
  • Assessment of needs for reserve capacities
  • Economic optimisation of system services
  • Assessment of flexible demand support to system balancing

The main source of imbalance in the Danish power system is the wind power uncertainty. Therefore, this uncertainty is key input to Simba balancing. DTU Wind energy is partner in the Simba project, contributing mainly with CorWind simulations of consistent time series of wind power production and wind power prognoses with day-ahead and hour-ahead


Jens Carsten Hansen, DTU Wind Energy

Transmission system operation with large penetration of wind and other renewable electricity sources in networks


European Commission – 7th Framework Programme

 A group of 6 Transmission System Operators (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands and Spain) with 2 generator companies, 5 manufacturers and research organisations, performed 6 demonstration projects to remove several barriers which prevent the electric system from welcoming more wind electricity, and wind electricity from contributing more to the electric system.

One of the six demonstrations was the so-called Storm Demonstration lead by Off-shore wind farm shut downs under stormy conditions will be demonstrated in Denmark using one of the world largest off-shore wind farm, Horns Rev II. The wind turbine manufacturer SIEMENS Wind Power developed a new storm controller that mitigated these shut-downs, and the new controller was demonstrated and compared to the conventional controller in full 200MW wind farm scale.

The experimental results of this demonstration were integrated into European impact analyses to show the scalability of the solutions. DTU was leading the work package on upscaling and economic impact of the TWENTIES demonstrations, see eg [4]. Together with storm demonstration partners, DONG Energy (wind farm owner), Siemens Wind Power (wind turbine manufacturer) and SINTEF (studying balancing with hydro power in Norway). CorWind was a key tool in this study.


Jens Carsten Hansen, DTU Wind Energy

Power system reliability management


European Commission – 7th Framework Programme

Power system reliability management aims to maintain power system performance at a desired level, while minimizing the socio-economic costs of keeping the power system at that performance level.

Historically in Europe, network reliability management has been lying on the so-called “N-1” criterion: in case of fault of one relevant element (e.g. one transmission system element, one significant generation element or one significant distribution network element), the elements remaining in operation must be capable of accommodating the new operational situation without violating the network’s operational security limits.

Today, the increasing uncertainty of generation due to intermittent energy sources, combined with the opportunities provided e.g. by demand-side management and energy storage, call for imagining new reliability criteria with a better balance between reliability and costs.
The GARPUR project designs, develops, assesses and evaluates such new reliability criteria to be progressively implemented over the next decades at a pan-European level, while maximising social welfare.


Jens Carsten Hansen, DTU Wind Energy

A fully renewable hybrid CSP plant


Supported by 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission

Renewable energy are often criticized for not being able to produce supply power to the electrical grid in a manner that is stable, firm and reliable. This difficulty can find a proper and viable solution through hybrid CSP/biomass plants. The market is showing a strong interest in hybrid technologies for power generation. For instance; the American company eSolar (owned by General Electric) has established an alliance with the Chinese company Penglai, in order to develop CSP/biomass technology, sharing turbines and other infrastructure, reducing costs and producing energy throughout the whole day.

The aim of HYSOL Project is to become the European reference in competition to this and other initiatives ongoing in the CSP/biomass global market. The HYSOL Project focusses on overcoming the CSP technology limitations to increase its contribution in the global electric market, hybridising with biomass energy to achieve 100 % renewable and sustainable energy, and providing a stable and reliable power independently of meteorological circumstances.

The main added value of the hybridisation concept will be the achievement of the Europe Strategic Energy Technology plan (SET-Plan), which is the market, the industry and the European Union goal on energy matters: self-producing firm renewable energy with an optimal cost-efficiency ratio.
The present proposal focuses on the study, the design, the pre-industrial scale demonstration of around 2,5MWth and the optimisation of an innovative configuration based on a new HRS (gas-molten salt) and an AGT simulator implemented in an existing CSP plant. In addition, gas fuel used in the AGT simulator will be produced from biomass considering the environmental sustainability factor; therefore, the hybrid installation will become a full renewable plant.
Read more at the HYSOL project website


Klaus Skytte, DTU Management Engineering

Reliability with increasing levels of variable generation


South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI)

The project (2015 – 2016) analyses and assesses the development and implementation of a strategy on system adequacy and reserves with increasing levels of variable generation in the South African power system.

The study on reserve requirements based on forecast errors and ramp rates of wind power is carried out using the CorWind model developed by DTU Wind Energy based on the experience in Denmark and Europe.
Time series of wind and solar across South Africa necessary as input to WP2 are provided by the WASA project carried out in a separate project in cooperation between DTU and South African partners led by SANEDI.


Jens Carsten Hansen, DTU Wind Energy

 Co-Management of energy and transport systems


PERIOD: 2015-2019

COSTUMER: Innovation Fund Denmark


MAIN PARTNERS: DTU, Roskilde University, E4SMA

LINK: Project website

CONTACT:  Kenneth Karlsson, DTU Management Engineering

The COMETS project will deliver tools to ensure energy friendly transport. New tools for analysis combine models for energy systems and transport models and will design the future of energy efficient transportation solutions. COMETS integrates the two existing decision-making and analysis tools in the transport and energy sector and will thus be the first project to bridge the gap between effective infrastructure utilization and the energy grid.

To combine the large amounts of different data and provide recommendations and solutions that are not only innovative, but also directly applicable, COMETS is based on cooperation between a broad group of researchers from DTU Management Engineering, Transport DTU, Roskilde University, University College Cork, Concito, Technology Council , Danish Energy, DEA and E4SMA (Italy).

The project contributes to a cost-effective fossil free energy and transport sector by 2050, by understanding the impact on the energy system from 1) the transport sector, 2) consumer preferences and behaviour regarding transportation, and 3) planning of cities and transport infrastructure. COMETS will:

Develop a new modelling framework that links TIMES-DK with Lands Trafik Modellen run by DTU Transport. The goal is to develop an energy system modelling framework beyond state of the art, integrating transport and energy system analyses.
Analyze the environmental and economic impacts on the future energy system from an increasingly renewable-based and system-integrated transport sector.
Produce a plan for de-carbonizing the Danish Energy System that highlights when transport and fuel infrastructure need to be developed.


Technology opportunities in nordic energy system transitions


The project is initiated and funded by Nordic Energy Research

To meet 2050 energy and climate policy goals, a major transition is required in the Nordic region. Indeed, changing energy and transport systems may require fundamental social changes. Industrial actors and policy makers will need insights and analyses to help guide their decision-making throughout this process; and, these analyses will have to take account of concerns of environmental sustainability and economic competitiveness.

The TOP-NEST project has developed an approach that addresses this challenge, by clarifying the current situation, and identifying the most promising pathways for towards more sustainable systems. The project seeks to:

  • Guide industrial strategies and governments in making the transition to sustainable Nordic energy and transport systems towards 2050.
  • Enhance the competitive position of Nordic industries in the international market for clean technologies.


Kenneth Bernard Karlsson, DTU Management Engineering


 Integrating PV in smart grids


Supported by Horizon2020

 As energy demand continues to increase in an unsustainable and environmentally damaging way, a worldwide need arises for advancement of renewable energy technologies. At the same time the developing world is reaching a critical pivotal point for high penetration of renewables in the national grid which is expected to result in severe operational problems unless restructuring of the current, traditional grid takes place. Thus the research field chosen to be enhanced in this project, namely photovoltaic (PV) and integration in smart grids, has a timely and significant importance of global dimensions, particularly so for regions of high solar insolation such as the MENA region.

The concept underpinning the project foresees the strengthening of a research field in an academic institution of a low performer country through linking effectively with internationally-leading research partners in the specific field. In particular, the PVlab of UCY will twin with AIT and DTU in order to enhance its research and innovation capabilities in PV and grid integration in smart grids. The specific topic has been selected based on the excellent track record and fully-operating state-of-the-art infrastructure in solar energy and PV technology research at UCY developed since 2005.


Jacob Østergaard, DTU DTU Electrical Engineering

 Strategic platform for innovation and research in intelligent power


Funded by  SPIR - Strategic Platform for Innovation and Research


iPower is a strategic platform where universities and industrial partners consolidate innovation and research activities for the purpose of developing intelligent control of decentralized power consumption. An ongoing task in iPower is to produce the right tools to manage millions of flexible consumption units, as well as to develop methods to facilitate the operation of electrical distribution systems with flexible power generation. Methods for identification of user needs and acceptance of flexible consumer units are being tested in practice.

The iPower Platform develops and matures Smart Grid technologies for the electrical grid, industries and residential applications. Smart Grid technology is required to ensure that the electrical grid can absorb all the energy generated by wind and solar renewables. The iPower platform links research, innovation and demonstration to actual product development by specifying technologies, requirements and methods for Smart Grid products, and enables industrial partners to become first movers in a new and growing world market.

Contributing partners
Balslev Rådgivende Ingeniører A/S; COWI A/S; Danfoss A/S; Danish Energy Association; Designskolen Kolding; Develco Products A/S; DONG Energy A/S; ENFOR A/S; GreenWave Systems ApS; Grid Manager A/S; Grundfos A/S; IBM Danmark ApS; Insero Software; Kamstrup A/S; KPMG; Lodam Electronics A/S; Lund University; Metro Therm A/S; National Consumer Research Centre; NeoGrid Technologies ApS; Neas Energy A/S; Nilan A/S; Saseco ApS; Teknologisk Institut; University College Dublin; University of California, Berkeley; Univeristy of Illinois at Urbana; Vestas Wind Systems A/S; Vestfrost Solutions; Aalborg University


Jacob Østergaard, DTU Electrical Engineering


System validation approaches for Smart Grids


Supported by H2020

Renewable energy sources are key enablers to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. The intermittent behaviour of most renewable energy sources and their limited storage capabilities present new challenges to power system operators in maintaining power quality and reliability. However, the increased availability of advanced automation and communication technologies has also provided new intelligent solutions to these challenges. Previous work has presented various new methods to operate highly interconnected power grids with corresponding components in a more effective way. As a consequence of these developments the traditional power system is transformed into a cyber-physical system, a Smart Grid. Previous and ongoing research activities have mainly focused on validating certain aspects of Smart Grids, but until now no integrated approach for analysing and evaluating complex configurations in a cyber-physical systems manner is available.

The lack of system validation approaches for Smart Grids is especially addressed by ERIGrid. By providing a Pan-European research infrastructure ERIGrid supports technological development as well as the roll out of Smart Grid solutions and concepts in Europe. It uses a holistic, cyber-physical systems based approach by integrating 18 European research centres and institutions with outstanding research infrastructures and jointly develops common methods, concepts, and procedures. ERIGrid also integrates and enhances the necessary research services for analysing, validating and testing Smart Grid configurations. System level support and education for industrial and academic researchers is also provided to foster future innovation.

Project Facts

H2020 call: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015: Integrating and opening existing national and regional research infrastructures of European interest.
Funding instrument: Research and Innovation Actions (RIA) - Integrating Activity (IA).
18 Partners from 11 European Countries + 3 third parties involved.
Involvement of 21 first class Smart Grid labs.
10 Mio Euro Funding from the EC (~1000 Person Months).
54 month project duration.


Henrik W. Bindner, DTU Electrical Engineering

Improved use of waste for energy or material recycling


Partially funded by Innovation Fund Denmark

The objective of TOPWASTE is to contribute to improved use of waste for energy or material recycling integrating economic and environmental considerations including resource scarcity.

The project includes development of a coordinated set of four tools to analyze and plan investments and activities, taking into account that the waste management sector and the energy sector are intertwined and will be subject to new market conditions. The tools are applied to the Danish situation through analyses of future scenarios and are used for data management, forecasting of future waste amounts, economic and environmental optimization of waste and energy sectors as well as environmental assessment of waste treatment technologies.

Project facts
TOPWASTE is a four-year project (2011-2015) supported by Innovation Fund Denmark (0.5 mill. USD). There are 11 project partners from research institutions, consultancies and industry from Denmark, Sweden and the USA. Furthermore, the project includes an Advisory Board, which consists of members from 8 institutions in Denmark, Germany, and Sweden and 3 industrial collaborators.


Marie Münster, DTU Management Engineering

Modular form of electrification with high penetration of RE in rural  communities


eThekwini Municipality

The aim of the project was to investigate the suitability of and develop concepts for modular smart-grid approach for use in the electrification of rural communities with a high penetration of renewable energy, with particular emphasis on the needs in the eThekwini Municipality.

The project was funded by the Danish Embassy in South Africa, through the eThekwini municipality, and carried out by an international team of organisations:
• DTU Wind Energy
• Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR)
• University of the Witwatersrand (WITS)
• North West University (NWU)
• South African National Energy Research Institute (SANERI)

Description of Actual Services Provided by dtu Staff:
- Project management together with eThekwini municipality.
- Co-ordination of technical engineering input together with WITS
- Computer modelling of various rural electrification schemes and interpretation of results
- Carrying out of site visits, together with project partners, for the purpose of general assessment of renewable energy potential and possibilities for electrification
- Participation in two workshops (Durban and Johannesburg) for dissemination of results
- Investigation of feasibility of follow-on projects using the project results.
- Co-ordination, authoring and editing of the project’s final report.


Tom Cronin, Special Advisor, DTU Wind Energy


Consultation Services for Studies on Grid Integration of Wind Power in China

 chinese wind turbines


Danish-Chinese Wind Energy Development Programme (WED)

The project included the following elements:

• Study on Standard of Wind Power Grid Integration and Upgrading the National Grid Code
• Study on Capability of 3 state Power Grids (Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang) to Accommodate Wind Power
• Grid Interconnection Study on Xiangyang Wind Farm in Jilin Province
• Training and Hot-line Service about WindPRO software

Services Provided by DTU:

• Expert assessment of CEPRI grid studies
• Expert assessment of proposal for Chinese grid code
• Training of CEPRI staff in Denmark


Poul Ejnar Sørensen, Professor, DTU Wnd Energy

System adequacy and reserve margin with increasing levels of variable generation



SANEDI, South Africa

The project assesses the effects of increasing levels of penetration of renewables on the system adequacy and reserve margins of the South African grid. Project included the following elements:

  • System reserves in the South African power system and international utilities
  • RE predictability on the need for reserves
  • Stochastic analysis for system adequacy
  • Recommendation to Eskom about ancillary services and system adequacy
  • Knowledge transfer and reporting
  • Project management

In cooperation with EA Energy Analysis (project leader) and


Poul Ejnar Sørensen, Professor, DTU Wnd Energy




European Union 7th Framework Programme

Improve the operation of distribution systems with high wind power penetration by using the wind power plants grid support
capabilities. This is accomplished through:

  • Digitizing the communication between grid devices (i.e. wind turbine’s inverter) and the net monitoring system in relation
    to IEC 61850.
  • Minimizing grid losses in MV distribution systems with high wind power penetration by optimizing the reactive power flow.
  • Making optimal use of the existing net and obtain a benefit of the green transition by using regulation rather than to reinforce
    the net.
  • Exploring which business model to be applied between players.
  • Testing IT security infrastructure for data communication in accordance to IEC 62351.
  • Building up know-how on modelling the condition of the MV network.
  • Contributing to improvement and qualification of future technical regulations which are under preparation at
    and which should bind together the political, technical and financial interests.

Actual services provided by DTU:

  • Minimizing grid losses in MV distribution systems with high wind power penetration by optimizing the reactive power flow.
  • Building up know-how on modelling the condition of the MV network.


Anca D. Hansen, DTU Wind Energy

Pan European Climate Database (PECD)



ENTSO-E - European Network of Transmission System Operators
for Electricity

The RES generation time series database was used in a biennial, non-binding, Ten-Year Network Development Plan (TYNDP).
This network development plan was designed to increase information and transparency on investment needs in pan-European
electricity transmission systems and, in doing so, support decision-makers at regional and European level.

DTU was chosen to provide a set of synthetic synchronous wind, solar and temperatures time series obtained by mesoscale
dynamical downscaling simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and CorWind model. The time series
were generated for different spatial distributions for the countries members of ENTSO-E. The aggregation level ranged from
country-wise to area levels, with hourly resolution.


Nicolaos Cutululis, DTU Wind Energy